**CONTENTS**

**Concise**

**Encyclopedia**

**of**

**Biostatistics**

**for Medical Professionals**

**By Abhaya Indrayan and Martin Holt**

**CRC Press, 2016**

List of terms and concepts (topics)

explained in the biostatistics encyclopedia

**A**

abortion rate/ ratio

absolute risk reduction,

*see*attributable risk (AR)

accelerated failure time model,

*see also*proportional hazards

acceptable risk

acceptance and rejection regions

acceptance sampling,

*see*lot quality assurance scheme

accuracy

actuarial method,

*see*expectation of life and life table

adaptive designs for clinical trials

added variable plot

additive effect/ factors

adjusted effects,

*see also*adjusted mean, adjusted odds ratio, adjusted

*R*2

adjusted mean

adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR),

*see also*odds ratio (OR)

adjusted

*R*2,

*see also*multiple correlation

adjusting for baseline values,

*see also*analysis of covariance

adolescent health (epidemiological indicators of)

adult health (epidemiological indicators of)

adult literacy rate,

*see*education indicators

adverse effect and adverse patient outcomes

affinity,

*see also*measures of dissimilarity and similarity

age-period cohort analysis

age-specific death rates,

*see*death rates

agglomerative methods,

*see*hierarchical clustering

agreement assessment (overall),

*see also*Bland–Altman method of agreement

agreement charts

AIC,

*see*Akaike information criterion (AIC) and general AIC (GAIC)

Akaike information criterion (AIC) and general AIC (GAIC)

aleatory uncertainties,

*see also*epistemic uncertainties

algorithm (statistical)

allocation of subjects,

*see also*random allocation

alternative hypothesis,

*see*null and alternative hypotheses

alpha error,

*see*level of significance

alpha-spending function,

*see also*Lan–deMets procedure

analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)

analysis of variance (ANOVA),

*see also*one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA

analysis (statistical)

analytical studies

ANCOVA,

*see*analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)

Anderberg dichotomy coefficient,

*see*association between dichotomous characteristics (degree of)

Anderson–Darling test

ANOVA,

*see*analysis of variance (ANOVA)

antagonism,

*see*interaction

antecedent factors

APACHE score

Apgar score

area diagram

area sampling

area under the concentration curve (AUC curve)

area under the ROC curve,

*see C*-statistic

arithmetic mean,

*see*mean (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic)

ARMA and ARIMA models,

*see*autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models

Armitage–Doll model

arms of a trial

association and its degree

association between dichotomous characteristics (degree of)

association between ordinal characteristics (degree of)

association between polytomous characteristics (degree of)

association in prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies,

*see also*chi-square test for 2×2 tables

assumptions (statistical)

asymptotic relative efficiency,

*see*relative efficiency of estimators

asymptotic regression,

*see*regressions (types of)

attack rate

attenuated correlation

attributable fraction,

*see*attributable risk (AR) fraction

attributable risk (AR),

*see also*attributable risk (AR) fraction, population attributable risk and population attributable fraction

attributable risk (AR) fraction,

*see also*population attributable risk and population attributable fraction

attributes

AUC,

*see*area under the concentration curve (AUC curve)

autocorrelation

autoregressive models,

*see*autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models

autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models

average deviation,

*see*variation (measures of)

average linkage method of clustering,

*see also*cluster analysis

**B**

backward elimination,

*see*stepwise methods

Balaam design,

*see also*crossover design

balanced and unbalanced designs

Bangdiwala

*B*,

*see also*Cohen kappa

bar diagrams

Barnard test

Bartlett test

baseline,

*see also*baseline equivalence, baseline hazard/ risk

baseline equivalence,

*see also*baseline

baseline hazard/ risk

bathtub curve/ distribution

Bayesian confidence interval

**,**Bayesian inference

*see*Bayesian inference,

*see also*Bayes rule

Bayes rule,

*see also*Bayesian inference

BCPE method,

*see*Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method

bed–population ratio,

*see*health infrastructure (indicators of)

before–after design/ study

Beherens–Fisher problem,

*see*Welch test

bell-shaped distribution,

*see*Gaussian distribution

Berkson bias

best subset method of choosing predictors

beta distribution

beta error,

*see*Type-II error

biased estimates,

*see*unbiased estimator

biased sample

bias in literature review

bias in medical studies and their minimization,

*see also*bias (statistical)

bias in publications,

*see*publication bias

bias pyramid

bias (statistical),

*see also*biased sample, unbiased estimator

bidirectional dependence

bihistogram

bikini syndrome,

*see*confidence intervals (the concept of)

bimodal distribution

binary dependent/ outcomes/ predictor/ response/ variables

binomial distribution

binormal distribution

bioassays,

*see also*parallel–line assays, slope–ratio assays, quantal assays

bioavailability,

*see also*half-life of medications, pharmacokinetic parameters, area under the concentration curve

bioequivalence,

*see also*bioavailability, area under the concentration (AUC) curve

bioinformatics

biostatistics

biplot

birth and death registration

birth cohort

birth–death process,

*see*stochastic processes

birth order

birth rate,

*see*fertility indicators

birth weight ratio

biserial correlation,

*see*point-biserial correlation

bivariate distributions

bivariate Gaussian distribution

black box approach

Bland–Altman method of agreement,

*see also*agreement assessment (overall)

blinding, masking and concealment of allocation

block, cluster, and stratified randomization, and minimization,

*see also*random allocation

BMI,

*see*body mass index

body mass index (BMI),

*see also*obesity (measures of)

Bonferroni procedure/ test,

*see also*multiple comparisons

bootstrap procedure,

*see*resampling

Bowker test,

*see*McNemar–Bowker test

Box–Pierce and Ljung–Box

*Q*test

box-and-whiskers plot

Box–Cox power exponential (BCPE) method,

*see also*LMS method

Box–Cox power transformations,

*see also*power transformations

Box

*M*test

Breslow–Day test

Breslow test

Broca index

Brown–Forsyth test

bubble charts

burden of disease,

*see also*disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

butterfly effect

**C**

calibration

canonical correlation

capture–recapture method

carry-over effect,

*see*crossover designs/ trials

cartogram

case-control studies,

*see*retrospective studies

case-fatality rate

case reports

cases (selection of)

case series/ studies

casewise, pairwise and listwise deletion

categorical data (analysis of) – overall

categorical variables,

*see*variables

categories of data values

causal chain/ pathway

causal diagram

causal inference,

*see*cause-effect relationship

cause–effect relationship

cause of death

cause-specific death rate,

*see*death rates

cell frequency

censoring (of observations)

census

centiles,

*see*percentiles and percentile curves

central limit theorem (CLT)

central values (understanding and which one to use),

*see also*mean, median and mode (calculation of)

centroid method of clustering,

*see also*cluster analysis

champaign glass effect,

*see*health inequality

chance,

*see also*uncertainties

chance node,

*see*decision analysis/ tree

chaotic measurements

charts (statistical)

child mortality rate,

*see*mortality rates

chi-square – overall

chi-square test for 2×2 tables,

*see also*chi-square test for odds ratio and relative risk

chi-square test for larger two-way contingency tables

chi-square test for goodness-of-fit,

*see*goodness-of-fit

chi-square test for odds ratio and relative risk,

*see also*chi-square test for 2×2 tables

chi-square test for three-way contingency tables

chi-square test for trend in proportions and deviation from trend

choroplethic map,

*see also*thematic map, spot map

circadian rhythm,

*see*diurnal variation

civil registration system,

*see*birth and death registration

circular sampling,

*see*systematic sampling

classification,

*see also*discriminant analysis/ functions, cluster analysis

classification and regression trees

class-intervals

clinical equipoise,

*see*equipoises

clinical equivalence,

*see also*equivalences (types of) in clinical trials

clinically important difference,

*see*medically important effect (the concept of)

clinical tolerance range,

*see also*medically important difference (test for detecting)

clinical trials (overview)

clinimetrics,

*see also*scoring systems for diagnosis and for gradation of severity

Clopper–Pearson bounds/ interval,

*see also*exact confidence intervals (CIs), Wilson interval

cluster analysis

clustering effect,

*see*design effect and the rate of homogeneity

cluster randomization,

*see*block, cluster, and stratified randomization, and minimization

clusters,

*see also*cluster analysis

cluster sampling

C-max,

*see*pharmacokinetic parameters (

*C*max,

*T*max) and pharmacokinetic studies

Cochrane collaboration/ reviews

Cochran

*Q*test

Cochran test for linearity of trend,

*see*chi-square test for trend in proportions and deviation from trend

coding

coefficient of correlation,

*see*correlation coefficient (Pearsonian/ product–moment)

coefficient of determination,

*see*multiple correlation

coefficient of reproducibility,

*see*Guttman scale

coefficient of variation

Cohen kappa,

*see also*Bangdiwala B

cohort studies,

*see also*prospective studies

collinearity,

*see*multicollinearity

communality of a variable

comparative mortality ratio

comparison groups

comparison of one sample mean and proportion with a prespecified value

comparison of one sample proportion with a prespecified value,

*see*comparison of one sample mean and proportion with a prespecified value

comparison of intercepts in two or more simple linear regressions

comparison of two or more correlation coefficients

comparison of two or more means,

*see*Student

*t*-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA)

comparison of two or more medians,

*see*Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, Kruskal–Wallis test

comparison of two or more odds ratios

comparison of two or more proportions

comparison of two or more regression coefficients

comparison of two or more regression lines

comparison of two or more relative risks

competing risks

complete linkage method of clustering,

*see also*cluster analysis

completely randomized designs

compliance (in clinical trials)

components of variance,

*see*variance components analysis

composite curve

composite index

computer-aided diagnosis,

*see*expert systems

concealment of allocation,

*see*blinding, masking and concealment of allocation

concomitant variable,

*see*dependent and independent variables (in regression)

concordance and disconcordance

concurrent and historical controls,

*see*controls

concurrent cohort,

*see*cohort studies

concurrent validity,

*see*validity (types of)

conditional probability,

*see*probability

confidence band for regression line/ curve

confidence bounds,

*see also*confidence intervals (the concept of)

confidence intervals (the concept of)

confidence interval (CI) for attributable risk (AR)

confidence interval (CI) for correlation coefficient

confidence interval (CI) for difference between means/ proportions

confidence interval (CI) for mean

confidence interval (CI) for median,

*see also*exact confidence intervals (CIs)

confidence interval (CI) for odds ratio (OR)

confidence interval (CI) for predicted

*y*in simple linear regression

confidence interval (CI) for proportion,

*see also*exact confidence intervals (CIs)

confidence interval (CI) for regression coefficient and intercept in simple linear regression

confidence interval (CI) for relative risk (RR)

confidence interval (CI) for variance

confidence interval (CI)

*versus*test of significance

confidence level,

*see*confidence intervals (the concept of)

confounders

conjoint analysis

consecutive sampling

consistency,

*see also*internal consistency

CONSORT statement

constructs (statistical),

*see*factor analysis

construct validity,

*see*validity (types of)

consumption units

content validity,

*see*validity (types of)

contingency coefficient,

*see*association between polytomous characteristics (degree of)

contingency tables

continuity correction

continuous variables (distribution of),

*see also*discrete variables (distribution of)

contour-like diagram,

*see*Lexis diagram

contrasts (statistical)

control charts,

*see also*cusum chart

controls

convenience sample,

*see*sampling techniques

COREQ (reporting of quality research)

correlation (the concept of),

*see also*correlation coefficient (Pearsonian/ product–moment)

correlation coefficient (Pearsonian/ product-moment)

correlation matrix

correlogram,

*see*autocorrelation

correspondence analysis

covariance

covariance (analysis of),

*see*analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)

covariance matrix,

*see*dispersion matrix

covariates

Cox–Mantel test,

*see*log-rank test (Mantel–Cox test)

Cox model,

*see*Cox regression

Cox proportional hazards model,

*see*proportional hazards,

*see also*Cox regression

Cox regression

Cramer V,

*see*association between polytomous characteristics (degree of)

criterion validity,

*see*validity (types of)

critical region/ value,

*see*acceptance and rejection regions

Cronbach alpha

crossover designs/ trials,

*see also*crossover trials (analysis of)

crossover trials (analysis of)

cross-product ratio,

*see*odds ratio

cross-sectional studies

*C*-statistic,

*see also*receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve

cubic clustering criterion

cubic splines

cumulative frequency,

*see*ogive

curvilinear regression,

*see also*regression (types of)

cusum chart

cyclic model/ trend

**D**

DALYs,

*see*disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

data analytics,

*see also*data mining

database systems

data collection,

*see also*data quality

data dredging,

*see also*data snooping

data entry

data management

data mining

data (nature of)

data quality

Data Safety and Monitoring Board

data snooping,

*see*data dredging, data mining

data source (primary and secondary)

death certification

*see also*cause of death

death rates,

*see also*mortality rates

death spectrum

deciles,

*see*quantiles

decision analysis/ tree

degrees of freedom (df) (the concept of)

Delphi method

Demographic and Health Surveys

demographic cycle

demographic indicators,

*see also*demographic cycle, population pyramid

demography

dendrogram,

*see also*cluster analysis

dependence and independence (statistical),

*see also*dependent and independent variables (in regression)

dependency ratio

dependent and independent variables (in regression)

descriptive analysis/ studies,

*see also*exploratory data analysis

descriptive studies

design effect and the rate of homogeneity

design of experiments,

*see*experimental designs

designs of medical studies (overview),

*see also*experimental designs

deterministic variables,

*see*variables

deviance

deviations,

*see*variation (measures of)

df,

*see*degrees of freedom (df) (the concept of)

diagnosis errors

diagnostic tests,

*see*sensitivity and specificity, predictivities (of medical tests), gain from a medical test

diagnostic trials,

*see*clinical trials (overview)

diagrams,

*see*graphs and diagrams

dichotomous categories,

*see*categories of data values

dietary indices

difference-in-differences approach

digit preference

direct standardization,

*see*standardized death rates

disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

disability-free life expectancy,

*see*life expectancy (types of)

disability weight,

*see also*disability adjusted life years (DALYs)

disconcordance,

*see*concordance and disconcordance

discrete variables (distribution of),

*see also*continuous variables (distribution of)

discriminant analysis/ functions

discriminating power

disease spectrum

DisMod,

*see*epidemiologically consistent estimates

dispersion,

*see*variation

dispersion matrix

distal measures,

*see*proximal and distal measures of health and disease

distribution-free methods/tests,

*see*nonparametric methods/ tests (overview)

distributions (statistical)

diurnal variation

doctor-population ratio,

*see*health infrastructure (indicators of)

donut diagram

dose-response (type of) relationship

dot plot

double blind trials,

*see*blinding, masking and concealment of allocation

double sampling,

*see*two-phase sampling

dummy variables,

*see*variables

Duncan test

Dunnett test,

*see also*multiple comparisons

Durbin–Watson test

**E**

ecological fallacy

ecological study,

*see*ecological study

ED50

education indicators

effect modification,

*see*interaction

effect size,

*see also*medically important effect (the concept of)

efficacy and effectiveness

empiricism

empty cells,

*see*contingency tables

endogenous and exogenous factors and variables

enrollment ratio,

*see*education indicators

ensemble methods

epidemic curve

epidemic models,

*see also*infectious disease models

epidemiologically consistent estimates

epidemiological studies

epistemic uncertainties,

*see also*aleatory uncertainties

equipoises

equivalence and noninferiority trials,

*see also*equivalence, superiority and noninferiority tests

equivalence, superiority and noninferiority tests

equivalences (types of ) in clinical trials,

*see also*equivalence and noninferiority trials

errors (statistical),

*see*measurement errors, Type-I error, Type-II error

error sum of squares

error variance

estimate

estimator (unbiased),

*see*unbiased estimator

ethics of clinical trials and medical research

etiologic factors,

*see also*causal diagrams

etiologic fraction,

*see*attributable risk (AR) fraction

etiology diagrams,

*see*causal diagrams

Euclidean distance

evaluation of health programs/ systems

evidence (levels of)

evidence-based medicine

exact confidence intervals (CIs)

exact tests

examination (health/ medical) data/ surveys

exchangeability

exclusion criteria,

*see*inclusion and exclusion criteria

exhaustive categories,

*see*mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories

exogenous factors,

*see*endogenous and exogenous factors and variables

expectation of life and the life table,

*see also*life expectancy (types of)

experimental designs,

*see also*experimental studies

experimental studies,

*see also*experimental designs

experimentation (statistical principles of)

experiment-wise and comparison-wise error rate

expert systems

explanatory and predictive models

explanatory variables,

*see*variables

exploratory data analysis,

*see also*exploratory studies

exploratory studies

exponential curve/ function,

*see also*exponential distribution

exponential distribution,

*see also*exponential curve/ function

extrapolation,

*see also*interpolation

eyeball fit

**F**

face validity,

*see*validity (types of)

factor analysis,

*see also*factor scores

factorial and partially factorial designs

factor loadings,

*see*factor analysis

factors (classificatory and experimental)

factor scores,

*see also*factor analysis

fallacies (statistical),

*see also*misuse of statistical tools

false negative and false positive

familial aggregation

fertility indicators

field trials,

*see*clinical trials

Fieller theorem

file–drawer effect

finite population correction

Fisher–Beherens problem,

*see*Welch test

Fisher exact test

Fisher–Irwin test,

*see*Fisher exact test

Fisher

*z*-transformation,

*see*comparison of two or more correlation coefficients

fixed and random effects,

*see also*mixed effects models

flow chart

focus group discussion

follow-up studies,

*see*prospective studies

forecasting

forest plot,

*see*meta-analysis

forward selection,

*see*stepwise methods

fractiles,

*see*quantiles

frailty models

Framingham Heart Study

*F*-ratio,

*see F*-test

frequencies,

*see also*frequency curve/ distribution/ polygon

frequency curve/ distribution/ polygon

frequency (in a cell),

*see also*expected frequency

frequentist approach,

*see*Bayesian inference

Friedman test

*F-*test

funnel plot

**G**

GAIC,

*see*Akaike information criteria (AIC) and general AIC (GAIC)

gain from a medical test

gamma distribution

Gantt chart

garbage-in garbage-out (GIGO) syndrome

Gaussian conditions

Gaussian deviate,

*see also*Gaussian distribution (standard)

Gaussian distribution

Gaussian probability (how to obtain)

Gaussianity (how to check)

Gaussian test,

*see z*-test

generalized estimating equations (GEE)

generalized linear models,

*see also*general linear models

general linear models,

*see also*generalized linear models

generalized Wilcoxon test,

*see*Breslow test

gender inequality index

general fertility rate,

*see*fertility indicators

geometric mean,

*see*mean (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic)

geriatric health (epidemiological indicators of)

Gini coefficient,

*see also*health inequality, Palma measure of inequality

GLM,

*see*generalized linear models

global burden of disease (GBD),

*see*burden of disease

gold standard

Goodman–Kruskal gamma,

*see*association between ordinal categories (degree of)

goodness-of-fit

graphs and diagrams,

*see also*charts (statistical), maps (statistical)

gross domestic product (GDP)

gross enrollment ratio,

*see*education indicators

gross reproduction rate,

*see*fertility indicators

group average method of clustering,

*see*centroid method of clustering

grouped data,

*see also*class-intervals

group sequential design

growth charts,

*see also*growth indicators of children

growth indicators of children,

*see also*,

*Z*-score,

*T*-score, velocity of growth

growth velocity,

*see*velocity of growth in children

Grubb test

Guttman scale

**H**

half-life of medications

haphazard sampling

hard data and soft data

harmonic mean,

*see*mean (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic)

harmonic regression

harmonization of data

Hawthorne effect

hazard functions

hazard rate/ ratio,

*see also*proportional hazards

health adjusted life expectancy,

*see*life expectancy (types of)

health inequality,

*see also*Gini coefficient, Palma measure of inequality

health infrastructure (indicators of)

health measurement

health programs (evaluation of),

*see*evaluation of health programs/ systems

health situation analysis

health statistics

healthy life expectancy,

*see*life expectancy (types of)

hierarchical clustering,

*see also*cluster analysis

hierarchical designs

hierarchical models/ regression

hierarchical regression

histogram

historical cohort,

*see*cohort studies

homogeneity of variances,

*see*homoscedasticity

homoscedasticity

Hosmer–Lemeshow test

hospital statistics

Hotelling

*T*2

human development index

Huynh–Feldt correction,

*see also*repeated measures ANOVA

hyperpopulation

hypothesis (null and alternative),

*see*null and alternative hypotheses

hypothesis (research)

hypothesis testing (statistical),

*see also*null and alternative hypotheses

**I**

*I*2 (index of homogeneity) in meta-analysis,

*see also*meta–analysis

ICD,

*see*International Classification of Diseases (ICD)

icicle plots

imprecise probability,

*see*probability

imputation for missing values,

*see also*nonresponse

inception cohort,

*see*cohort studies

incidence

inclusion and exclusion criteria

incomplete tables,

*see*contingency tables

independence (statistical),

*see*dependence and independence (statistical)

independent and paired samples .

independent variables,

*see*dependent and independent variables

indexes,

*see also*indicators

indicators,

*see also*indexes

indicator variables,

*see*variables

indirect standardization,

*see*standardized death rates

Indrayan smoking index

infant mortality rate,

*see*mortality rates

infection rate

infectious disease models,

*see also*epidemic models

infectivity, pathogenicity and virulence,

*see*disease spectrum

inference (statistical)

infographics

informatics (medical),

*see also*expert systems

informed consent,

*see*ethics of clinical trials and medical research

instrumental variables,

*see*variables

intention-to-treat analysis

interaction,

*see also*main effect and interaction effect in ANOVA

intercept (in a regression),

*see*simple linear regression

interim analysis

internal attributes,

*see*factor analysis

internal consistency,

*see also*consistency

internal validation,

*see*validation

Interntional Classification of Diseases (ICD)

interpolation

interquartile range,

*see*variation (measures of)

interrater reliability

interval estimate,

*see*confidence intervals (the concept of)

interval scale,

*see*scales of measurement (statistical)

intervention studies,

*see also*clinical trials, experimental studies

interview data/ survey,

*see also*interviewing techniques

interviewer bias,

*see*bias in medical studies and their minimization

interviewing techniques

intraclass correlation,

*see also*interrater reliability, agreement assessment (overall)

intraobserver consistency/ reliability,

*see also*intraclass correlation

inverse association

inverse probability,

*see*Bayes rule

inverse sampling

Ishikawa diagram

item analysis

iterative procedure

**J**

Jaccard dichotomy coefficient,

*see*association between dichotomous characteristics (degree of)

jackknife resampling,

*see*resampling

Jeffreys interval for binomial p,

*see also*Clopper

**–**Pearson bound/ interval

jitter graph/ plot

joint distribution,

*see*bivariate distribution

J-shaped curve/ distribution

**K**

Kaiser–Meir–Olkin (KMO) measure

Kaplan–Meier method,

*see also*survival curve/ function

kappa (statistic),

*see*Cohen kappa

Kendall tau,

*see*association between ordinal characteristics (degree of)

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

Kruskal–Wallis test

Kuder–Richardson coefficient

kurtosis

**L**

lag,

*see*autocorrelation

Lan–deMets procedure,

*see also*O’Brien–Fleming procedure

landmark analysis

LASSO,

*see*least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)

latent variables models,

*see also*latent variables

latent variables

laws of probability (addition and multiplication),

*see also*probability

least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)

least significant difference (LSD),

*see also*multiple comparisons

least squares method

left-skewed distribution,

*see*skewness and coefficient of skewness

level of significance,

*see also P*-values

Levene test

Lexis diagram

life expectancy (types of),

*see also*expectation of life and life table

lifetable,

*see*expectation of life and the life table

life table method,

*see*survival curve/ function

likelihood, log-likelihood and maximum likelihood estimates

likelihood ratio of a diagnostic test

likelihood ratio test,

*see also*likelihood, log-likelihood and maximum likelihood estimates

Likert scale

limits of agreement,

*see*Bland–Altman method of agreement

linear effect,

*see also*linearity (test for)

linearity (test for),

*see also*linear effect

linear models,

*see*general linear models

linear regression,

*see also*simple linear regression, multiple linear regression

line diagrams

linkage,

*see*record linkage

link functions

listwise deletion,

*see*casewise, pairwise and listwise deletion

literacy rate,

*see*education indicators

LMS method

LMSP method,

*see*Box–Cox power exponential (BCPE) method

loadings, factor

location (measures of)

logarithmic scale/ transformation

logistic coefficients (CI and test of H0)

logistic coefficients (interpretation of),

*see also*logistic coefficients (CI and test of H0)

logistic discriminant functions

logistic models/ regression (adequacy of)

logistic models/ regression (basics of)

logistic models/ regression (multinomial, ordinal, and conditional),

*see also*logistic models/ regression (basics of)

logistic regression (requirements for)

logit,

*see also*logistic model/ regression (basics of)

log-likelihood,

*see*likelihood, log-likelihood and maximum likelihood estimates

log-linear models

log-normal distribution

log-rank (Mantel–Cox) test

longitudinal data (analysis of)

longitudinal studies,

*see*prospective studies

lot quality assurance scheme

LOWESS plot

**M**

Mahalanobis distance

main effects and interaction effects in ANOVA

MANOVA,

*see*multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)

Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test,

*see*Wilcoxon rank-sum test

Mantel–Cox test,

*see*log-rank (Mantel–Cox) test

Mantel–Haenszel procedure

maps (statistical),

*see*choroplethic map, cartogram, spot map, thematic map

marginal distribution,

*see*bivariate distributions, multivariate distributions

Markov process,

*see*stochastic processes

masking,

*see*blinding, masking and concealment of allocation

matched pairs,

*see also*matching

matching,

*see also*matched pairs

maternal mortality rate,

*see also*mortality rates

mathematical models,

*see*models (statistical)

Mauchly test for sphericity

maximum likelihood method,

*see*likelihood, log-likelihood and maximum likelihood estimates

McNemar–Bowker test

McNemar test

mean (arithmetic, geometric, harmonic),

*see also*mean, median and mode (calculation of)

mean deviation,

*see*variation (measures of)

mean, median, and mode (calculation of),

*see also*central values (understanding and which one to use)

mean square due to error (MSE),

*see*mean squares in ANOVA

mean squares in ANOVA

measurement errors

measures of central tendency,

*see*central values (understanding and which one to use)

measures of dissimilarity and similarity

median,

*see*central values (understanding and which one to use); mean, median, mode (calculation of)

median effective dose,

*see*ED50

median method of clustering

median test,

*see also*sign test, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test

mediators and moderators of outcome

medical care errors (statistical control of)

medical decisions (statistical aspects of)

medical experiments,

*see*experimental studies

medically important difference (tests for detecting),

*see also*medically important effect (the concept of)

medically important effect (the concept of)

medical records

medical research (types of)

medical significance

*versus*statistical significance

medical uncertainties (sources of),

*see*aleatory and epistemic uncertainties

medical uncertainties (types of),

*see also*aleatory uncertainties, epistemic uncertainties

mental health (indicators of)

meta–analysis,

*see also*funnel plot,

*I*2 (index of homogeneity)

meta–analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines

meta–regression,

*see also*meta–analysis

metric categories,

*see*categories

metric scale,

*see*scales of measurement (statistical)

misclassification

missing data,

*see also*imputation for missing data, nonresponse

misuse of statistical tools,

*see also*fallacies (statistical)

mixed diagram,

*see also*graphs and diagrams

mixed effects models

mode,

*see*mean, median, mode (calculation of ),

*see also*bimodal distribution/ probability

models (statistical)

monotonic relationship

Monte Carlo methods

MOOSE guidelines,

*see*meta–analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines

morbidity indicators,

*see also*incidence, prevalence and prevalence rates

mortality rates,

*see also*death rates

moving averages

MSE,

*see*mean squares in ANOVA

multiarms trials

multicentric trials

multicollinearity

multilevel models/ regression,

*see*hierarchical models/ regression

multinomial distribution/ test

multiple comparisons,

*see also*Bonferroni procedure/ test, Dunnett test, least significant difference (LSD), Tukey test for multiple comparisons

multiple correlation

multiple imputations,

*see*imputation for missing values check sequence

multiple linear regression,

*see also*regressions (types of), simple linear regression

multiple responses

multistage random sampling

multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)

multivariate data/ methods

multivariate distributions

multivariate Gaussian distribution,

*see also*bivariate Gaussian distribution

multivariate logistic regression,

*see also*logistic models/ regression (multinomial, ordinal and conditional)

multivariate regression

mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories,

*see also*multiple responses

**N**

national well-being

natural clusters,

*see*cluster analysis

natural experiments

negative binomial distribution

negative trials

neonatal mortality rate,

*see*mortality rates

nested case-control studies,

*see*retrospective studies

nested designs,

*see*hierarchical designs

net reproduction rate,

*see*fertility indicators

NNT,

*see*number needed to treat

*n*-of-1 trials

nominal categories,

*see*categories of data values

nominal scale,

*see*scales of measurement (statistical)

nomogram

nonGaussian distributions,

*see*distributions (statistical)

noninferiority test,

*see*equivalence, superiority and noninferiority tests

noninferiority trials,

*see*equivalence and noninferiority trials

nonlinear regression,

*see also*linear regression, curvilinear regression

nonparametric methods/ tests – overview

nonrandom sampling,

*see*sampling techniques

nonresponse

nonsampling errors

nonsense correlation,

*see*correlation (the concept of)

normal distribution,

*see*Gaussian distribution

normality (test of),

*see*Gaussianity (how to check)

normalization

normal probability plot,

*see also*quantile-by-quantile (Q-Q) plot

normal range of medical parameters

notations (statistical)

nuisance parameters

null and alternative hypotheses

number needed to treat (NNT)

numerical analysis/ method

**O**

obesity (measures of),

*see also*body mass index

O’Brien–Fleming procedure,

*see also*Lan–deMets procedure

observational studies,

*see also*natural experiments

observations (statistical)

observed zeroes,

*see*contingency tables

observer bias/ errors/ variation

odds,

*see also*odds ratio (OR)

odds ratio (OR),

*see also*odds

ogive

one-sided bound,

*see*confidence bound

one- and two-tailed alternatives/ tests

one-way ANOVA,

*see also*analysis of variance (ANOVA)

one-way designs,

*see also*two-way designs

open trials

operations research

optimistic index (page 709 of my book)

ordered alternatives,

*see also*one- and two-tailed alternatives/ tests

OR,

*see*odds ratio (OR)

order of a table,

*see*contingency tables

order statistics

ordinal association,

*see*association between ordinal characteristics (degree of)

outcome variables

outliers

overanalysis,

*see also*data dredging

overfit (of regression)

overmatching,

*see also*matching

**P**

pack-years of smoking

paired samples,

*see also*matched pairs

paired

*t*-test,

*see*Student

*t*-test

pairwise deletion,

*see*casewise, pairwise and listwise deletion

Palma measure of inequality,

*see also*Gini coefficient, health inequality

parabolic curve,

*see*curvilinear regression

parallel controls,

*see*controls

parallel–line assays

parametric models

parameters

parameter uncertainty,

*see*sensitivity analysis, parametric models

parsimonious models

partial correlation

partial least squares

partial likelihood

partitioning of chi-square and of tables,

*see also*chi-square – overall

partogram

path analysis

pattern recognition

Pearsonian correlation,

*see*correlation coefficient (Pearsonian/ product–moment)

PECOS system,

*see*population, exposure, control, outcome and study design (PECOS) to do

pedigree charts

penalized likelihood,

*see*Akaike information criterion (AIC) and general AIC (GAIC)

percentiles and percentile curves,

*see also*growth charts

periodogram

perinatal mortality rate/ ratio,

*see*mortality rates

permutation tests

personal probability,

*see*probability

person-time

pharmacoepidemiology (statistical)

pharmacokinetic parameters (

*C*max,

*T*max) and pharmacokinetic studies,

*see also*area under the curve (AUC) , half-life of medications

phases of (clinical) trials

phi coefficient,

*see*association between polytomous characteristics (degree of)

physical quality of life index,

*see also*quality of life index

PICO method,

*see*population, intervention, comparison and outcome (PICO) method

pie diagram (exploded/ wedged)

Pillai trace

pilot study and pretesting

placebo

point-biserial correlation

point estimate,

*see*estimate

Poisson distribution

Poisson regression

polynomial regression,

*see*curvilinear regression

polytomous categories,

*see*categories of data values

ponderal index,

*see also*body mass index (BMI)

pooled chi-square,

*see*Mantel–Haenszel procedure

pooled odds ratio (OR),

*see*Mantel–Haenszel procedure

pooled relative risk (RR),

*see*Mantel–Haenszel procedure

pooled variance

population (the concept of)

population attributable risk and population attributable fraction,

*see also*attributable risk

population growth model and curve

population, intervention, comparison and outcome (PICO) method

population pyramid

positive health

posterior probability,

*see*prior and posterior probability

posthoc comparisons,

*see*multiple comparisons

postmarketing surveillance,

*see also*phases of (clinical) trials

poststratification

potential years of life lost (PYLL),

*see also*disability adjusted life-years (DALYs)

poverty index

power (statistical) and power analysis

power transformations,

*see also*Box-Cox power transformations

P-P plot,

*see*proportion-by-probability (P-P) plot

PPS sampling,

*see*probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling

pragmatic trials

precision,

*see also*reliability

predicted value and prediction interval in regression

prediction interval,

*see*predicted value and prediction interval

predictive analytics,

*see*data analytics

predictive models,

*see*explanatory and predictive models

predictive validity,

*see*predictivities (of medical tests)

predictivities (of medical tests)

predictors

pretesting,

*see*pilot study and pretesting

prevalence and prevalence rates

prevalence studies,

*see*descriptive studies

prevented fraction,

*see*attributable risk (AR) fraction

primary data,

*see*data sources (primary and secondary)

primary sampling unit

primordial factors

principal components

principles of experimentation,

*see*experimentation (statistical principles of)

prior probability and posterior probability

PRISMA statement

probability,

*see also*laws of probability (addition and multiplication)

probabilities in clinical assessment

probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling

probability sample,

*see*sampling techniques

proband

probit transformation

product-limit estimator,

*see*Kaplan–Meier method

product-moment correlation,

*see*correlation coefficient (Pearsonian/ product–moment)

profile analysis

proforma,

*see*questionnaire, schedule and proforma

propensity score approach

prophylactic trials,

*see*clinical trials

proportional hazards,

*see also*Cox regression

proportional reduction in error (PRE)

proportionate sample

proportion-by-probability (P-P) plot

proportions

prospective studies,

*see also*retrospective studies, case-control studies

protective effect

protocol (research) and its contents check

proximal and distal measures of health and disease,

*see also*primordial factors

*P-*values

publication bias

purchasing power parity dollars

purposive sample,

*see*sampling techniques

putative factors

**Q**

Q-Q plot,

*see*quantile-by-quantile (Q-Q) plot

Q-test,

*see*Cochran Q-test

quadratic regression,

*see*curvilinear regression

qualitative measurements,

*see also*quantitative measurements

qualitative research,

*see also*focus group discussion

quality control in medical care,

*see also*control charts, lot quality assurance scheme

quality of data and of measurements,

*see also*fallacies (statistical)

quality of life index,

*see also*physical quality of life index

quantal assays,

*see also*bioassays

quantile-by-quantile (Q-Q) plot

quantile regression

quantiles,

*see also*percentiles and percentile curves

quantitative measurements,

*see also*qualitative measurements

quartiles,

*see*quantiles

quasi-experimental designs,

*see also*before-after design/ study

quasi-random allocation,

*see*random allocation

questionnaire, schedule and proforma

Quetlet index,

*see*body mass index (BMI)

quintiles,

*see*quantiles

quota sampling

**R**

radar graph

radix,

*see*expectation of life and the life table

random allocation,

*see also*block, cluster, and stratified randomization, and minimization

random effects,

*see*fixed and random effects

random effects ANOVA

random errors

randomization,

*see*random allocation

randomized block design

randomized consent design,

*see*Zelen design

randomized controlled trials (RCTs)

randomized response technique

randomness (statistical tests of)

random numbers

random sampling,

*see*sampling techniques

random sampling methods

random variables,

*see*variables

range,

*see*variation

rank correlation

ranking and selection

ranks

rapid assessment method,

*see*cluster sampling

Rasch analysis

rate

rate of homogeneity,

*see*design effect and the rate of homogeneity

ratio

ratio estimator

ratio scale,

*see*scales of measurement (statistical)

RCT,

*see*randomized controlled trials (RCTs)

recall lapse

receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve,

*see also C*-statistic

record linkage,

*see also*medical records

records (medical),

*see*medical records

reestimation of sample size

reference category

reference values,

*see*normal range of medical parameters

registration of births and deaths,

*see*birth and death registration

registration of trials

regression coefficients,

*see also*regression models (basics of)

regression diagnostics,

*see*regression fit (adequacy of), regression requirements (validation of)

regression fit (adequacy of),

*see also*regression models (basics of)

regression fitting (general method of),

*see also*regression models (basics of)

regression models (basics of),

*see also*regression fitting (general method of)

regression requirements (validation of),

*see also*logistic regression (requirements for)

regression splines,

*see*spline regression

regression to the mean

regression trees,

*see*classification and regression trees

regressions (types of)

regressors (choice of),

*see also*stepwise methods, best subset method of choosing predictors

rejection region,

*see*acceptance and rejection regions

relative efficiency of estimators

relative potency,

*see also*bioassays

relative risk (RR)

reliability,

*see also*repeatability and reproducibility

repeatability and reproducibility,

*see also*reliability

repeated measures ANOVA

repeated measures studies

replicability,

*see*repeatability and reproducibility

replication

reproducibility,

*see*repeatability and reproducibility

reproduction rates (net and gross),

*see*fertility indicators

reproductive number (of a disease)

resampling

research

research synthesis,

*see also*systematic reviews, meta-analysis

residuals,

*see also*regression models (basics of)

residual sum of squares,

*see*error sum of squares

response rate

response surface

response variable,

*see*variables

retrospective cohort,

*see*cohort studies

retrospective studies,

*see also*cross-sectional studies

reverse causation

reviews,

*see*systematic reviews

ridge regression,

*see also*regression models (basics of)

risk difference,

*see*attributable risk

risk factors

risk ratio,

*see*relative risk

robustness

ROC curve,

*see*receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve

*R*2,

*see*multiple correlation

runs test for equality of distributions

**S**

sample

sample design,

*see*sampling techniques (overall)

sample size determination (general principles)

sample sizes for odds ratio and relative risk,

*see also*sample sizes for simple situations (mean proportion and differences), sample sizes for statistical analysis methods, sample size for study formats

sample sizes for simple situations (mean proportion and differences),

*see also*sample sizes for odds ratio and relative risk, sample sizes for statistical analysis methods, sample size for study formats,

sample sizes for statistical analysis methods,

*see also*sample sizes for odds ratio and relative risk, sample sizes for simple situations (mean proportion and differences), sample size for study formats

sample size for study formats,

*see also*sample sizes for odds ratio and relative risk, sample sizes for simple situations (mean proportion and differences), sample sizes for statistical analysis methods

sample size reestimation,

*see*reestimation of sample size

sample surveys

SAMPL guidelines

sampling (advantages and limitations)

sampling distribution of proportion

*p*and mean

sampling error/ fluctuations

sampling fraction,

*see*sampling terms

sampling frame,

*see*sampling terms

sampling techniques (overall)

sampling terms

sampling unit,

*see*sampling terms

sampling with and without replacement,

*see*sampling terms

scales of measurement (statistical)

scalogram analysis,

*see*Guttman scale

scatter diagrams

scoring systems (method for developing),

*see also*scoring systems for diagnosis and for gradation of severity

scoring systems for diagnosis and for gradation of severity,

*see also*scoring systems (method for developing)

screening trials,

*see*clinical trials

scree plot/ test

seasonal trend,

*see*time series

secondary data,

*see*data sources (primary and secondary)

secular trend,

*see*time series

semi-interquartile range,

*see*variation (measures of)

sensitivity and specificity

sensitivity analysis,

*see also*uncertainty analysis

sequential analysis

sequential sampling

sequential trials,

*see*group sequential designs

serial correlation,

*see*autocorrelation

sex ratio

Shapiro–Francia test

Shapiro–Wilk test

side effects,

*see*clinical trials (overview)

sigmoid curve,

*see*logit

signed-ranks test,

*see*Wilcoxon signed-ranks test

significance (statistical)

significance level,

*see*level of significance,

*see also*significance (statistical)

significant digits

sign test

similarity (statistical, measures of)

simple linear regression,

*see also*regression models, multiple linear regression

simple matching dichotomy coefficient,

*see*association between dichotomous characteristics (degree of)

simple random sampling

Simpson paradox

simulation studies,

*see*Monte Carlo methods

single linkage method of clustering

six-sigma methodology

skewness and the coefficient of skewness

slope (in regression),

*see*simple linear regression

slope–ratio assays,

*see also*bioassays

Slutzsky–Yule effect

small area estimation

smoke-pipe distribution

smoking index,

*see*Indrayan smoking index

smoothing methods,

*see also*spline regression, cubic splines

snowball sampling

social classification

social health (indicators of)

Somer

*d, see*association between ordinal characteristics (degree of)

Spearman rank correlation,

*see*rank correlation

Spearman-Brown formula

specificity,

*see*sensitivity and specificity

sphericity,

*see*Mauchly test for sphericity

spline regression,

*see also*cubic splines

split-half consistency,

*see also*consistency

spot map

spurious correlation,

*see*correlation (the concept of)

square table,

*see*contingency table

standard deviation

standard error (SE),

*see also*sampling distribution of proportion p and mean

standardization of values,

*see Z*-scores

standardized death rates

standardized deviate,

*see Z*-score

standardized mortality ratio (SMR)

standard normal distribution,

*see*Gaussian probability (how to obtain)

STARD statement

statistical analysis,

*see*analysis (statistical)

statistical fallacies,

*see*fallacies (statistical)

statistical inference,

*see*inference (statistical)

statistical models,

*see*models (statistical)

*, see also*parametric models

statistical reviews

statistical significance,

*see*significance (statistical)

statistics (singular),

*see also*biostatistics

stem-and-leaf plot,

*see*histogram

stepwise methods,

*see also*best subset method of choosing predictors

stillbirth rate/ ratio

stochastic processes

stochastic variables,

*see*variables

stopping rules (for trials),

*see also*O’Brien–Fleming procedure, Lan–deMets procedure

stratification,

*see*stratified random sampling

stratified analysis,

*see*Mantel–Haenszal procedure

stratified randomization,

*see*block, cluster and stratified randomization, and minimization

stratified random sampling

STROBE statement

structural equation models

Studentized range,

*see*Tukey test for multiple comparisons

Student

*t*-distribution

Student

*t*-tests

study designs,

*see*designs of medical studies (overview)

subjective probability,

*see*probability

sum of squares (types of)

superiority and noninferiority trials,

*see*equivalence and noninferiority trials

surface and internal attributes,

*see*factor analysis

surface chart,

*see*response surface

surrogate measurement/ variables

surveys,

*see*sample surveys

survival analysis,

*see also*survival curve/ function

survival bias,

*see*bias in medical studies and their minimization

survival curve/ function,

*see also*Kaplan–Meier method

survival rate,

*see also*survival analysis

symmetric distribution,

*see*skewness and the coefficient of skewness

synergism,

*see*interaction

synoptic chart,

*see*Lexis diagram

synthesis of research,

*see*research synthesis

*, see also*meta–analysis

systematic random sampling

systematic reviews,

*see also*Cochrane collaboration/ reviews

**T**

tabular presentation of data and results

*t*-distribution,

*see*Student

*t*-distribution

Taguchi designs

Tanimoto dichotomy coefficient,

*see*association between dichotomous categories characteristics (degree of)

tapping

target population,

*see*population (the concept of)

Tarone–Ware test,

*see also*log-rank (Mantel–Cox) test

telephone sampling

tertiles,

*see*quantiles

test criterion

tests of hypothesis (philosophy of)

tests of significance,

*see also*tests of hypothesis (philosophy of)

test-retest reliability

test statistic,

*see*test criterion

tetrachoric correlation

thematic maps,

*see also*chroplethic map

therapeutic trials,

*see*clinical trials

30×7 sampling,

*see*cluster sampling

three-dimensional diagrams,

*see also*response surface

three-way tables,

*see*chi-square for three-way contingency tables

three-sigma limits,

*see also*six-sigma methodology

ties in values,

*see*ranks

time-dependent covariate,

*see*Cox regression

time series,

*see also*periodogram, autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models

titration study

*T-*max,

*see*pharmacokinetic parameters (

*C*max,

*T*max) and pharmacokinetic studies

tolerance interval

total fertility rate,

*see*fertility indicators

tracking

transformations

trend

trials,

*see*clinical trials

trimmed mean

triple blinding,

*see*blinding

trivariate distribution

truncated values/ distributions

*T*-score,

*see also Z*-score

Tschuprow coefficient,

*see*association between polytomous characteristics (degree of)

*t*-test,

*see*Student

*t*-test

Tukey test for additivity

Tukey test for multiple comparisons,

*see also*multiple comparisons

twin studies

two-by-two tables

two one-sided tests (TOSTs),

*see*equivalence, superiority and inferiority tests

two-phase sampling

two-sided alternative,

*see*one- and two-tailed alternatives/ tests

two-way ANOVA,

*see also*analysis of variance (ANOVA)

two-way designs,

*see also*one-way designs

two-way tables,

*see*contingency tables

Type-I error,

*see*level of significance

Type-II error,

*see also*power (statistical) and power analysis

Type-III error

**U**

unbalanced design,

*see*balanced and unbalanced design

unbiased estimator

unbiased sample,

*see*biased sample

uncertainties,

*see*aleatory uncertainties, epistemic uncertainties, medical uncertainties, parameter uncertainty

uncertainty analysis,

*see also*sensitivity analysis

uncertainty principle,

*see also*equipoises

under-5 mortality rate,

*see*mortality rates

uniform distribution

union and intersection of events,

*see*Venn diagrams

unit (statistical)

univariate analysis

universe (statistical),

*see*population (the concept of)

UPGMA method of clustering,

*see*average linkage method of clustering

unweighted mean,

*see*weighted mean

up-and-down trials

U-shaped curve,

*see also*bathtub curve/distribution

U-test,

*see*Wilcoxon signed-ranks test

**V**

vaccine trials,

*see*clinical trials

validation sample/ study,

*see also*validity, robustness

validity,

*see also*validity (types of)

validity (types of)

variability,

*see*variation (measures of)

variables

variable selection,

*see*stepwise methods, regressors (choice of), best subset method of choosing predictors

variance,

*see*standard deviation, confidence interval (CI) for variance

variance components analysis

variance-covariance matrix,

*see*dispersion matrix

variance inflation factor

variance ratio,

*see also F*-test

variance stabilizing transformation

variation (measures of),

*see also*coefficient of variation

varimax rotation

velocity of growth in children

Venn diagrams

visual display (of data),

*see*graphs and diagrams

vital statistics

volunteers-based studies

**W**

waist–hip ratio,

*see also*obesity (measures of)

Wald test

Ward method of clustering,

*see also*cluster analysis

washout period,

*see*crossover design

Weibull distribution

weighted least squares

weighted mean

Welch test

WHO growth charts

Wilcoxon rank-sum test

Wilcoxon signed-ranks test

Wilks lambda (L)

Wilson interval

Winsorized mean,

*see*trimmed mean

Wishart distribution

worm plots,

*see*quantile-by-quantile plot

**X**

**Y**

Yates correction for continuity

years of life lost,

*see*potential years of life lost (PYLL)

Youden index,

*see also*receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve

Yule Q,

*see*association between dichotomous characteristics (degree of)

**Z**

Zelen design

Zelen test

zero-inflated models

*Z*-score

*z*-test